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ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY


BASE enclosureINTRODUCTION

Quantitative Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopical analysis, provided by the BAGGI® BASE instruments, is used to determine the concentration of an analyte in an aqueous solution or in a gas mixture. In order to be able to do this, the analyte must absorb in the UV region. The instruments are based on a spectroscope that provides high wavelength resolution. The measurement technique relies on the Beer-Lambert law. This one is a relationship that relates the absorption of electromagnetic waves energy to the properties of the material through which the waves are travelling. The material is introduced in a sample cell of specific optical path length. The UV energy is transmitted to the cell via an optical fiber cable, it passes through the cell space and the residual energy is transmitted to the measuring sensor by a second optical fiber. The instruments are available also for outdoors installation (ATEX zone 2). Maintenance is reduced to a minimum due to:

  • Very long life UV lamp
  • Ruggedized components
  • Cell clean-up with instrument air/water, according to the application
  • Self-monitoring
  • Calibration facility
  • No moving parts

 

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BA-BTX: BENZENE, TOLUENE and HEAVY AROMATICS in SOLVENTS ANALYZER

 

Aromatics moleculeThe BA-BTX is part of the BAGGI BASE® Instruments Series. It provides accurate on-line measurements of Benzene, Toluene and Heavy Aromatics (like Xylene) concentrations in Solvents. This instrument is an application of quantitative Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy analysis, with high wavelength resolution. The measurement technique relies on the Beer-Lambert law. This one is a relationship that relates the absorption of electromagnetic waves to the properties of the material through which the waves are travelling.

The material from the process (solvent) is introduced in a sample cell of specific optical path length.

The UV energy is transmitted to the cell via an optical fiber cable, it passes through the cell space and the residual energy is transmitted to the UV sensor by a second optical fiber. The UV sensor sends the collected data to a computer that calculates the exact concentration of Benzene Toluene & Heavy Aromatics, and drives the outputs.

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BA-VOC: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASUREMENT in PROCESS GAS

 

Toluene moleculeThe BA-VOC is part of the BAGGI BASE® Instruments Series. It is designed to detect the presence of Volatile Organic Compounds (BTEX aromatic hydrocarbons: Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Styrene) in process gases. It is a fixed mounting device optimized for the real-time continuous monitoring of gaseous streams in the potentially explosive atmospheres encountered in the petrochemical plants. A data logger is incorporated within the instrument. Remote operation is available through the use of serial protocols (such as Modbus), TCP/IP and WiFi.

The sensor is made by a Photo-Ionization Detector (PID). This proven technology is able to monitor VOC vapours at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Other advantages are speed of response, ease of maintenance and affordability.

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HYDROGEN ANALYSIS SYSTEM

PalladiumBA-H2A Process Analysis System

The BA-H2A is an online real-time hydrogen process analyzer. The sensor is a solid state design based on a thin film of palladium alloy. The presence of H2 (down to 15 ppm concentration) changes the electrical resistance and capacitance of this film. The measured electrical signals are processed by software and the hydrogen level is displayed in real time. The system maintains the sensor element at a constant temperature, therefore its operation is unaffected by the gas and ambient temperatures. The system can be specially built for installation in areas with an explosive atmosphere.

The sensor is able to operate in process gas streams with up to 95% relative humidity and temperatures up to 100ºC. It is ideal for hydrogen production and petrochemical applications where real time measurements of hydrogen can increase process plant efficiencies and improve diagnostics.

Several versions are available to meet specific applications. All of these versions use the same electronics and enclosures; the only difference is in the sensor element and/or calibration gasses:

- Standard process monitor (calibration: H2 in N2
- Process monitor for air background (calibration: H2 in Air)
- CO tolerant process monitor (calibration: H2 in N2)
- H2S tolerant process monitor (calibration: H2 in N2)
- Corrosion resistant process monitor (calibration: H2 in N2)

 

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WOBBE INDEX ANALYZER (CALORIMETER)

FlameThe BAGGI BA-WIA is an on-line process analyzer for combustible gases. It measures the following quantities in real time

· Wobbe index

· Calorific value

· Specific gravity

Typical combustible gases are:

· Natural gases

· Blast furnace gases

· Coke oven gases

· Liquefied petroleum gases air mixtures

· Biogas

 

The instrument is a high speed combustion calorimeter, controlled by an embedded computer with a VGA display. A small flow of process gas is burnt continuously and the related temperature rise is measured by a thermopile. The electrical voltage at the output of the thermopile is a function of the Wobbe Index value. The Specific Gravity value is measured by a dedicated sensor. Then the computer calculates the Calorific value by the formula:

 

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Calorific value = Wobbe index · ÖSpecific gravity

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BA-GCA GAS CHROMATOGRAPH ANALYZER

BASE logochromatogramThe BAGGI BA-GCA is part of the BAGGI BASE® Instruments Series. They are the result of combining the latest state-of-the-art-technology with over 50 years of industry experience. The BA-GCA is a micro chip technology Gas Chromatograph Analyzer, for fast and reliable gas analysis. It is designed for ease of use, reduced maintenance and low gas consumption in on-line applications. It is specially built for installation in areas with an explosive atmosphere.

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BA-DWTR AUTOMATIC TANK DEWATERING SYSTEM

The BA-DWTR is part of the SensEvolution® SYSTEM® Instruments Series.

They are the result of combining the latest state-of-the-art-technology with over 50 years of industry experience.

This automatic tank dewatering system comprises the following main components:
- In-tank electromagnetic probes (two per each tank), that measure the spot water/hydrocarbon concentration at the tip of the probe.

- An embedded computer, that collects the raw data from the probes, actuates the drain valve, operates the alarms and offers a convenient Graphical User Interface.

 

 

When the upper probe detects hydrocarbon free water, the computer opens the water discharge valve. As water is drained from the bottom of the tank, the hydrocarbon/water interface begins to drop. When the probe detects the presence of the interface, the computer closes again the valve. The data link between the computer and the probe is typically a 4…20 mA loop. The valve can be actuated either by an electrical or a pneumatical signal.

The lower probe is used for control and alarm purposes: when it detects hydrocarbon presence, the valve is anyway kept closed and an alarm is generated by the computer.

 

A single computer is in charge of the whole tank farm.

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CABINETS and SHELTERS

shelter 1Cabinets, Shelters and Energy Distribution Boards are delivered under the SensEvolution  SHELT® Series.

They have a wide range of applications: from the shelter providing an internal controlled climate to the cabinet providing Atex protection in potentially explosive atmosphere (hazardous areas Zone 1-2), type of protection: “Ex d”, “Ex e”, “Ex pz” and “Ex px”.

They come with a full range of accessories, according to the requirements: heating/cooling systems, ventilation, exhaust, electric installation, lighting, sensors, electromagnetic shielding, cable and pipe connections, fire protection, mounting system…

Windows can be made of laminated safety glass or of acrylic glass.

The shelters are easily transportable, they can be equipped in the workshop and then moved to the final destination. They can be designed to meet severe environments, such as wind and snow loads, corrosion due to humidity and salt, and extreme temperatures (arctic or desert conditions).

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